Ammonium polyphosphate

Structure:
Formula: (NH4PO3)n
CAS No.: 68333-79-9
EINECS/ELINCS No.: 269-789-9
Synonyms: Polyphosphoric acids, ammonium salts

Ammonium polyphosphate

Ammonium Polyphosphate is an environment-friendly, non-toxic, halogen-free flame retardant, chemically Ammonium Polyphosphate is an organic salt of polyphosphoric acid and ammonia.

The chain length (n) of this polymeric compound can be linear or branched. Depending on the polymerization degree there are two main types of  Ammonium Polyphosphates (APPs):

APP Phase I – these are short, linear chain APP’s where n<100 are highly water soluble and less thermally stable, decomposing at temperatures above 150°C
The APP behaves as a flame retardant in an intumescent coating with the presence of other chemicals.

Characteristics & Uses (Phase I)

  • KYLIN APP1 has a high phosphorous and nitrogen content, a high polymerization degree, low water solubility, good thermal stability and low toxicity.
    Uses: It is used to prepare a number of high-efficiency expanding flameproof coatings used in the construction industry, ships, trains, cables etc. Also suitable for the flameproof treatment of wood, plywood, fiberboard, paper, fibers…
  • KYLIN APP100 has a lower phosphorous and higher nitrogen content than KYLIN APP1, high water solubility and good compatibility with other flame retardants and auxiliary chemicals.
    Uses: It is used to prepare 20% Phosphorous/Nitrogen containing flame retardants, it can be used solely or in conjunction with other materials in the flameproof treatment for textiles, papers, fibers and woods. Special treatment can be used to prepare 50% high concentration flameproof formulations required for special applications
  • KYLIN APP111 has a lower phosphorous and higher nitrogen content than KYLIN APP1, very high water solubility (over 150 grams in 100ml of water at 25°C) and good compatibility with other flame retardants.
    Uses: It can be used solely or in conjunction with other materials in the flameproof treatment for textiles, papers, fibers and woods.

 

APP Phase II – these APPs have a high polymerization degree, where n>1000 and is branched (cross-linked), it also has higher thermal stability, decomposition starts around 300°C

The APP behaves as a flame retardant in an intumescent coating with the presence of other chemicals. When APP-II is exposed to fire or heat, it decomposes to polymeric phosphate acid and ammonia. The polyphosphoric acid reacts with hydroxyl groups in the formulation to form a nonstable phosphate ester. Following dehydration of the phosphate ester, a carbon foam is built up on the surface and acts as an insulation layer. Due to this mechanism the APP does not generate additional quantities of smoke.


Characteristics & Uses (Phase II)

  • KYLIN APP201 & KYLIN APP203 (modified with Silane) can be used in solvent and water based intumescent coatings, various types of systems such as rubber, PU foam, expandable fireproof coating etc. The APP is compatible with a variety of different resin types:

    Thermosetting resins – Polyester, epoxy (EP), polyurethane (PUR),.. The APP can also be used with ATH (Alumina trihydrate) which is a flame retardant filler allowing significant reductions in ATH to improve processability.

    Thermoplastic resins – Polypropylene (PP), polyethylene (PE), polyvinyl chloride (PVC),… here the APP exhibits good processability, good retention of mechanical properties and good electrical properties.

 

  • KYLIN APP203 exhibits the following feature compared to the untreated grade (KYLIN APP201):
    Reduced solubility in water
    Reduced viscosity in water
    Improved dispersibility and compatibility with polymers and resins
    Better powder fluidity
    Improved thermal expansion efficiency

    The silane modification makes this APP suitable for water-fast intumescent systems in (PU, PBT…) and paints.
    With fibrous materials such as (paper, wood, fireproof textiles…)

 

  • KYLIN APP202 (modified with Melamine) is a finer product than the untreated KYLIN APP201. Compared to the untreated grade (KYLIN APP201), the KYLIN APP202 exhibits the following features:
    Reduced solubility in water
    Reduced viscosity in water
    Improved dispersibility and compatibility with polymers and resins
    Better powder fluidity
    Improved thermal expansion efficiency
    Uses: Fibrous materials (paper, wood, fireproof textiles)
    Variety of polymers (UV stable, waterproof…)
    Fire refractory building board, coiled material…
    Epoxy resin and unsaturated resin
    Cable and rubber
    Plastic materials, electronic devices
    Textiles

 

  • KYLIN APP231 (micro-encapsulated with melamine resin) is a fine particle white powder with very low solubility in water, even at elevated temperatures. It is completely insoluble in organic solvents.
    Uses: Recommended for applications where the APP is required to have extremely low water solubility even in water 60°C and where lower heat stability at temperatures above 300°C contributes to more rapid foaming of the coating.
    Fibrous materials (paper, wood, fireproof textiles)
    Variety of polymers (UV stable, waterproof…)
    Fire refractory building board, coiled material…
    Epoxy resin and unsaturated resin
    Cable and rubber
    Plastic materials, electronic devices
    Textiles

 

  • KYLIN APP226 (modified with epoxy) compared to the untreated grade (KYLIN APP201), preferred for epoxy resin systems, polyurethane and textile coating applications.

 

Packaging & Shelf Life:

  • 25kg woven bag with plastic liner
  • 24 months when stored under correct conditions

 

Health & Safety:
Detailed information on the product described can be found in our relevant Health and Safety Information (Material Safety Data Sheet).

 

 


Ammonium polyphosphate is a specialty chemical that finds many different uses in key industries.  Connect Chemicals is your quality provider when it comes to ammonium polyphosphate and other chemicals for industrial use.

Ammonium polyphosphate is an organic salt of polyphosphoric acid and ammonia. As a chemical, it is non-toxic, environmentally friendly and halogen-free. It is most commonly used as a flame retardant, selection of the specific grade of ammonium polyphosphate can be  determined by the solubility, Phosphorus content, chain length and polymerization degree. Our ammonium polyphosphate is available in 25kg woven bags and has a shelf life of 24 months under proper storage conditions.

 

Ammonium polyphosphate: The two types, their variants and their uses

Generally, the two types of ammonium polyphosphate we offer differ in water solubility and decomposition temperature.. We have  ammonium polyphosphate Phase I, which a shorter and more linear chain length, whereas  ammonium polyphosphate Phase II, which has much longer chain lengths exhibits a much higher polymerization degree. Both behave as a flame retardant in an intumescent coating with the presence of other chemicals.

Ammonium polyphosphate Phase I is highly water soluble but less thermally stable. It  begins decomposing at temperatures above 150°C. The various grades are KYLIN APP1, KYLIN APP100 and KYLIN APP111. They are mainly used in flameproof coatings within the construction industry, ships, trains, cables,  wood, plywood, fiberboard, paper and fibers.

Ammonium polyphosphate Phase II shows a higher thermal stability, with decomposition starting at temperatures above 300°C. The various grades are KYLIN APP201 (uncoated),KYLIN APP202 (melamine modified), KYLIN APP203 (silane modified), KYLIN APP226 ((9epoxy resin coated) and KYLIN APP231 (Melamine formaldehyde coated). They can be used in solvent and water based intumescent coatings as well as  various systems like rubber, PU foam, expandable fireproof coatings and textiles, woods, polymers as well as many others.

 

Ammonium polyphosphate from Connect Chemicals as a high quality provider

As a global organization, Connect Chemicals operates a network of facilities in Europe, North America and Asia. Due to our status as an international provider, we work with a culturally sensitive team in order to be able to fully navigate the common differences in business cultures around the world. As a high quality provider, we comply with the highest standard requirements both for the quality of our products and our safety protocols. We have specific knowledge and experience in the production, handling and logistics of specialty chemicals and are your competent partner for ammonium polyphosphate and other chemical products. 

 




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Product manager

Khalid Siddiqui

Phone: +44 1606 723534
Contact: Send E-Mail
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